Wednesday, September 7, 2016

Tech Support: Can someone tell me how exactly booting process works??

Can someone tell me how exactly booting process works??

Hi Folks,

Can someone tell me how exactly booting process works?

Keys to the Problem Can someone tell me how exactly booting process works??

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Hi Manjunath Jayaram,

For a computer to successfully boot, its BIOS, operating system and hardware components must all be working properly, failure of any one of these
3 elements will likely result in a failed boot sequence.
When the computer's power is first turned on, the CPU (central processing unit)
initializes itself, which is triggered by a series of clocks ticks
generated by the system clock.
Part of the CPU's initialization is to look to the system's BIOS ROM (Read Only Memory) chip on your mainboard
for its first instruction in the startup program.
This BIOS chip has a program burned onto it that knows where to look for, and how to access, the different expansion slots, ports, drives, and the Operating System.
The computer begins the boot sequence.
stores the first instruction, which is the instruction to run the POST (Power-On Self Test), in a predetermined memory address.
POST begins by checking the BIOS chip and then tests CMOS RAM.
If the POST does not detect a battery failure, it then continues to initialize the CPU, checking the inventoried hardware devices (such as the video card), secondary storage devices like hard drives and floppy drives, ports and other
hardware devices like keyboard and mouse, to ensure they are functioning properly and also it looks for any other cards in expansion slots and loads their configuration into memory. The BIOS program then does a simple memory check and count. The
routine then compares the information its gathered with the information stored in the CMOS chip's setup program.
there are any discrepancies, it halts the boot process and informs the operator.
Once the POST has determined that all components are functioning properly and the CPU has successfully initialized the BIOS looks for an OS to load.
The BIOS typically to the CMOS chip to tell it where to find the OS, the OS loads from the C drive
on the hard drive even though the BIOS has the capability to load the OS from floppy disk, CD or ZIP drive.
The order of drives that the CMOS looks to in order to locate the OS is called the boot sequence, which can be changed by altering the CMOS setup.
to the appropriate boot drive, the BIOS will first encounter the boot record, which tells it where to find the beginning of the OS and the subsequent program file that will initialize the OS.
For example -- It first looks on the floppy drive.
If there is a disk in the drive, it must have a copy of the OS system files on it.
If it does, the operating system is loaded into RAM (Random Access Memory).
If the disk doesn't contain
any operating files, then the computer halts and gives an error message.
You then have to remove the disk and press a key to continue.
If there is no disk in the floppy disk ,CD or ZIP drive., then the computer checks the hard drive for the Operating System files and, once found, continues to load the OS into memory (RAM).

Once the OS initializes, the BIOS copies its files into memory and the OS basically takes over control of the boot process.
Now in control, the OS performs another inventory of the system's memory and memory availability (which the BIOS already checked)
and loads the device drivers that it needs to control the peripheral devices, such as a printer, scanner, optical drive, mouse and keyboard.
This is the final stage in the boot process, after which the user can access the system’s applications to perform tasks.

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Open Action Center by clicking the Start button Picture of the Start button, clicking Control Panel, and then, under System and Security, clicking Review your computer's status.

Update and run your antivirus software. Windows doesn't come with antivirus software, but Action Center can often monitor the antivirus software that you or your computer manufacturer have installed.

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